Occupational Infections

 

The following table classifies occupational infections into 6 categories:

  1. Contact with Infected Living Animal
  2. Contact with Contaminated Animal Product
  3. Tick, Flea, or Mite Bite
  4. Contact with Human or Animal Waste
  5. Contact with Infected Patient or Blood
  6. Raise Dust Containing the Pathogen

This method of classifying occupational infections is used because it provides the means to link diseases and occupations in the Haz-Map database. More information about each occupational infection can be found at the web pages listed at the end of each section.

 

OCCUPATIONS

Contact with Infected Living Animal

DISEASES

Animal breeder
Animal caretaker
Animal scientist
Farmer & Rancher
Farmworker
Lab animal worker
Veterinarian
Handle infected domestic animals (inhalation or percutaneous exposure)
Anthrax
Brucellosis
*Hendra & Nipah viral diseases
Influenza
Leptospirosis
Plague
Q fever
Vesicular stomatitis fever
Animal breeder
Animal caretaker
Animal scientist
Lab animal worker
Poultry farmer
Poultry handler
Veterinarian
Handle infected chickens or birds
Campylobacter enteritis
Influenza
Psittacosis
Salmonellosis
Animal breeder
Animal caretaker
Animal scientist
Farmer & Rancher
Farmworker
Lab animal worker
Veterinarian
Bite or scratch by infected dog or cat
Brucellosis
Capnocytophaga infection
Cat scratch fever
Pasteurellosis
Plague
Rabies
Tularemia
Farmer & Rancher
Farmworker
Game warden
Hunter & Trapper
Veterinarian
Wildlife biologist
Bite by skunk, raccoon, bat, fox, or other carnivore
Rabies
Farmer & Rancher
Farmworker
Game warden
Hunter & Trapper
Veterinarian
Wildlife biologist
Bite by rodents
*Monkeypox
Plague
Rat bite fever
Farmer & Rancher
Farmworker
Game warden
Hunter & Trapper
Veterinarian
Wildlife biologist
Handle infected rodents (inhalation or percutaneous exposure)
*Arenaviral infection
Hantavirus infection
*Lassa fever
Leptospirosis
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM)
*Monkeypox
*Omsk hemorrhagic fever
Plague
Lab animal worker
Veterinarian
Handle infected laboratory rats
Hantavirus infection
LCM
Rat bite fever
Lab animal worker
Veterinarian
Handle infected macaque monkeys
B-virus infection
CDC - Brucellosis
CDC - Protecting Poultry Workers from Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)
CDC - Hendra viral disease
CDC - Leptospirosis
MMWR - Q Fever Outbreak -- Germany, 1996
MMWR - Q Fever among Slaughterhouse Workers -- California
Merck Veterinary Manual - Overview of Vesicular Stomatitis
OSHA Information Bulletin - Contracting Occupationally Related Psittacosis
CCOHS - Psittacosis
Merck Manual - Human and Mammal Bites
CDC - Plague
CDC - Rabies: General Information
Medscape - Tularemia -- United States, 1990-2000
CDC - Monkeypox
MMWR - Rat-Bite Fever -- New Mexico, 1996
CDC - Arenaviruses
CDC - Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
CCOHS - Hantavirus
CDC - Lassa Fever
CDC - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis
National B Virus Resource Center
CDC - Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever

OCCUPATIONS

Contact with Contaminated Animal Product

DISEASES

Animal breeder
Animal caretaker
Animal scientist
Butcher
Farmer & Rancher
Farmworker
Hunter & Trapper
Lab animal worker
Meat packer
Slaughterer
Veterinarian
Handle infected animal carcasses or placental tissues
Anthrax
Brucellosis
*Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever
*Glanders
*Hendra & Nipah viral
Leptospirosis
Plague
Psittacosis
Q fever
*Rift valley fever
Strept. suis infection
Tularemia
Grader & Sorter
Freight handler
Packer
Handle raw goat hair, wool or hides from endemic area
Anthrax
CDC - Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Frequently Asked Questions
DermIS - Anthrax (photos)
CDC - Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers
PubMed - Streptococcus suis: an emerging human pathogen.
CDC - Rift Valley Fever

OCCUPATIONS

Tick, Flea, or Mite Bite

DISEASES

Farmer & Rancher
Farmworker
Forester
Groundskeeper
Highway maintenance
Hunter & Trapper
Landscaper
Logging worker
Rail track maintenance
Work in tick infested area in North America
Babesiosis
Colorado tick fever
Ehrlichiosis
Lyme disease
Powassan virus encephalitis
Relapsing fever
Rocky mountain spotted fever
STARI
Tick paralysis
Tularemia
Building cleaning worker
Pest control worker
Work in building infested with fleas or mites of rodents
Murine typhus
Plague
Rickettsialpox
Hunter & Trapper
Laborer
Work in mite infested area of central, eastern or Southeast Asia
*Scrub typhus
DPDx - Babesiosis
Medscape - Tick-Borne Diseases, Colorado
CDC - Learn about Lyme Disease
CDC - Tick-borne Encephalitis
Merck Manual - Relapsing fever
CDC - Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
CDC - STARI
PubMed - Tick paralysis: 33 human cases in Washington State, 1946-1996
Merck Manual - Murine (Endemic) Typhus
Merck Manual - Rickettsialpox
Merck Manual - Scrub Typhus

OCCUPATIONS

Contact with Human or Animal Waste

DISEASES

Child care worker
Lab animal worker
Veterinarian
Care for children or primates infected with hepatitis A
Hepatitis A
Farmworker
Farmer & Rancher
Sewer worker
Work or swim in contaminated water (percutaneous exposure)
Leptospirosis
*Melioidosis
*Schistosomiasis
Animal handler (cattle)
Child care worker
Care for children or animals infected with cryptosporidiosis
Cryptosporidiosis
Animal breeder
Animal caretaker
Animal scientist
Farmer & Rancher
Farmworker
Lab animal worker
Veterinarian
Have dog or cat contact (fecal-oral)
Campylobacter enteritis
Echinococcosis
Hymenolepsis nana infection
Salmonellosis
Strongyloidiasis
Yersinosis
CDC: Hepatitis A
CDC: Leptospirosis
DPDx: Schistosomiasis
DPDx: Cryptosporidiosis
CDC: Alveolar Hydatid Disease (Echinococcosis)

OCCUPATIONS

Contact with Infected Patient or Blood

DISEASES

Dental worker
Embalmer
Healthcare worker
Handle contaminated needles or surgical instruments
AIDS
*Arenavirus infection
*Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
*Ebola -Marburg
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
West Nile virus infection
*Lassa fever
Healthcare worker
Care for sick patients (droplet/airborne pathogens)
Adenovirus
*Arenavirus infection
Coronavirus infection
*Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
Diphtheria
*Ebola -Marburg
Influenza
*Lassa fever
Measles
Meningococcus
Monkeypox
Mumps
Mycoplasma infection
Parvorvirus
Pertussis
RSV infection
Rubella
Strept. Group A infection
Tuberculosis
Varicella
Healthcare worker
Care for sick patients (bloodborne pathogens)
AIDS
*Arenavirus infection
*Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
*Ebola -Marburg
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
*Lassa fever
West Nile virus infection
CDC: Healthcare-Associated Infections
CDC: Guidelines for Infection Control in Health Care Personnel, 1998
OSHA: Needlestick Injuries
CDC: Needlestick Guidelines
CDC: Hepatitis B
CDC: Hepatitis C
WHO: Haemorrhagic Fevers
CDC: Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers: Fact Sheets
CDC: SARS
OSHA: Tuberculosis
CDC: Tuberculosis
CDC: Influenza Prevention and Control

OCCUPATIONS

Raise Dust Containing the Pathogen

DISEASES

Building cleaning worker
Construction worker
Dockworker
Farmer & Rancher
Farmworker
Game warden
Granary worker
Groundskeeper
Heating & AC worker
Hunter & Trapper
Pest control worker
Repair worker
Wildlife biologist
Raise dust of excreta from rodents
*Arenaviral infection
Hantavirus infection
*Lassa fever
Leptospirosis
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis
Rat bite fever
Bridge painter
Construction worker
Demolition worker
Farmer & Rancher
Farmworker
Gardener
Heating & AC worker
Roofer
Raise dust from bird roosts, chicken coops or bat-inhabited caves in endemic area
Histoplasmosis
Archeologist
Demolition worker
Farmer & Rancher
Hunter & Trapper
Farmworker
Plow, dig or excavate soil in endemic area
Blastomycosis
Coccidioidomycosis
Histoplasmosis
*Paracoccidioidomycosis
CDC - Blastomycosis
NIOSH - Histoplasmosis
CDC - Histoplasmosis
CDC - Coccidioidomycosis

*These occupational infections are not endemic to North America, but may be imported or result from medical research laboratory accidents.

References: Control of Communicable Diseases Manual; "Occupational Infections" in Rom; "Occupational Infections" in LaDou; p. 280-281 in Marks;

See the PubMed abstracts on occupational infections.

 

  Revised September 21, 2014

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