Titanium dioxide

Agent Name
Titanium dioxide
CAS Number
Major Category
1385RN 59; 1700 White; 234DA; 500HD; 63B1 White; A 200 (pigment); A 330 (pigment); A-FN 3; A-Fil; A-Fil Cream; AK 15 (pigment); AMT 100; AMT 600; AUF 0015S; Aerolyst 7710; Aerosil P 25; Aerosil P 25S6; Aerosil P 27; Aerosil T 805; Amperit 780.0; Atlas white titanium dioxide; Austiox R-CR 3; B 101 (pigment); BR 29-7-2; Bayer R-FD 1; Bayertitan A; Bayertitan AN 3; Bayertitan R-FD 1; Bayertitan R-FK 21; Bayertitan R-FK-D; Bayertitan R-KB 2; Bayertitan R-KB 3; Bayertitan R-KB 4; Bayertitan R-KB 5; Bayertitan R-KB 6; Bayertitan R-U 2; Bayertitan R-U-F; Bayertitan R-V-SE 20; Bayertitan T; Bistrater L- Blend White 9202; Brookite; C 97 (oxide); C-Weiss 7 [German]; C.I. 77891; C.I. Pigment White 6; CG-T; CI 77891; CI Pigment white 6; CL 310; Cab-O-Ti; Calcotone White T; Cosmetic Hydrophobic TiO2 9428; Cosmetic Micro Blend TiO2 9228; Cosmetic White C47-5175; Cosmetic White C47-9623; E 171; Flamenco; Hombitan; Hombitan R 101D; Hombitan R 610K; Horse Head A-410; Horse Head A-420; Horse Head R-710; Horse head a-410; Horse head a-420; Horse head r-710; KH 360; Kronos; Kronos 2073; Kronos RN 40P; Kronos RN 56; Kronos cl 220; Kronos titanium dioxide; Levanox White RKB; Orgasol 1002D White 10 Extra Cos; P 25 (oxide); Pigment White 6; R 680; Rayox; Ro 2; Runa ARH 20; Runa ARH 200; Runa RH20; Rutile; Rutiox CR; Ti-Pure; Ti-Pure R 901; Ti-pure R 900; Tichlor; Tin dioxide dust; Tiofine; Tiona T.D.; Tiona td; Tioxide; Tioxide A-DM; Tioxide AD-M; Tioxide R XL; Tioxide R-CR; Tioxide R-SM; Tioxide R.XL; Tioxide RHD; Tioxide RSM; Tipaque; Tipaque R 820; Titafrance; Titan White; Titandioxid (sweden); Titandioxid [Swedish]; Titania; Titanic anhydride; Titanic oxide; Titanium White; Titanium dioxide; Titanium oxide; Titanium oxide (TiO2); Titanium oxide (VAN); Titanium peroxide; Titanium peroxide (TiO2); Titanium(IV) oxide; Titanox; Titanox 2010; Titanox ranc; Trioxide(s); Tronox; Unitane; Unitane 0-110; Unitane 0-220; Unitane O-110; Unitane O-220; Unitane OR 450; Unitane OR 650; Unitane OR-150; Unitane OR-340; Unitane OR-342; Unitane OR-350; Unitane OR-540; Unitane OR-640; Uniwhite AO; Uniwhite KO; Uniwhite OR 450; Uniwhite OR 650; Zopaque; Zopaque LDC; [ChemIDplus] UN8027
Metals, Inorganic Compounds
White, odorless powder; Found naturally in the minerals rutile, anatase (or octahedrite), brookite, ilemnite (FeTiO3), and perovskite (CaTiO3). [Merck Index]
Pigment or filler in paints, paper, foods, ceramics, and pharmaceuticals; Used in welding rod coatings; [ACGIH] Rutile TiO2 is used as a semiconductor in the electronics industry. [Rom, p. 537] About 95% of all titanium consumed is titanium dioxide; it is an important white pigment in paints, paper coatings, and plastics; It is also a sunscreen and used as a color additive in flours, dairy products, and pharmaceutical tablets; [Nordberg, p. 1289] slag; Used as a whitening and opacifying agent in paints, paper, ceramics, and enamels; [IARC] Used for specialized white pigment applications such as paper and fibers; TIO2 is also used in welding rod coatings; Anatase is a semiconductor, and it is used to make electronic components; [Reference #1] Nanoparticle applications include photocatalysis, paints, sterilization, biomedical ceramics, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals; [PMID 21191487]
A study of 1,576 workers in the U.S. exposed to TiO2 for more than one year used incidence data from 1956 through 1985. Mortality data was available from the company for the years 1935 through 1983. There was no excess of lung cancer or chronic respiratory disease and no cases of pulmonary fibrosis. [Rom, p. 537-8] Cases of pulmonary fibrosis associated with exposure to TiO2 have been reported, but the reactions may have been caused by silica present as contamination. [Hendrick, p. 180-1] No listed effects of short-term or long-term exposure; [ICSC] "NIOSH has determined that ultrafine TiO2 is a potential occupational carcinogen but that there are insufficient data at this time to classify fine TiO2 as a potential occupational carcinogen." Summary of Epidemiologic Studies: "Overall, these studies provide no clear evidence of elevated risks of lung cancer mortality or morbidity among those workers exposed to TiO2 dust." [Reference #1] 2021 TLV Basis: lower respiratory tract irritation, pneumoconiosis; [ACGIH] See "Titanium." See "Anatase."
Biomedical References

Exposure Assessment

Skin Designation (ACGIH)
Insufficient data
2.5 mg/m3, respirable particulate matter (fine-scale particles) [0.2 mg/m3, respirable nanoscale particulates]
15 mg/m3, total dust
0.3 mg/m3, respirable fraction
5000 mg/m3
Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs
Basis for revised IDLH: The available toxicological data contain no evidence that an acute exposure to a high concentration of titanium dioxide would impede escape or cause any irreversible health effects within 30 minutes.
Explanatory Notes
mp = 1855 degrees C; [Merck Index]

Adverse Effects

IARC Carcinogen
Possible (2b)
ACGIH Carcinogen
Confirmed Animal

Diseases, Processes, and Activities Linked to This Agent


Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent: