Toxic Hepatitis

The following web pages pertaining to "Industrial Chemicals Associated with Toxic Hepatitis" do not reflect the revision of hepatotoxins in the current version of Haz-Map. Please see the NLM website for updated information, including new references and additional hepatotoxic chemicals.

Industrial Chemicals Associated with Toxic Hepatitis

The chemicals in this list are known to cause illness or death due to acute hepatic injury after occupational exposure. An example is a worker who becomes ill with toxic hepatitis after using one of the solvents in a confined space without respiratory protection. Workers who improperly handle any one of these 20 chemicals could suffer liver damage as the principal toxic effect of the substance.

Industrial Chemicals Associated with Acute Liver Injury as the Primary Toxic Effect:
Illness or Death
Category Chemical Name CAS # Other Chemical Names
Aliphatic Nitros 2-Nitropropane 79-46-9 Dimethylnitromethane, iso-Nitropropane, 2-NP
Aromatic Amines 4,4'-Methylenedianiline 101-77-9 MDA; 4,4'-Diaminodiphenylmethane; para, para'-Diaminodiphenyl-methane; Dianilinomethane; 4,4'-Diphenylmethanediamine; 4,4' Methylene bis (2-chloraniline); diaminodiphenylmethane; DDM;
Aromatic Nitros 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene 118-96-7 1-Methyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene; TNT; Trinitrotoluene; sym-Trinitrotoluene; Trinitrotoluol
Chlorinated Solvents Ethylene dichloride 107-06-2 1,2-Dichloroethane; Ethylene chloride; Glycol dichloride
Chlorinated Solvents 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 79-34-5 Acetylene tetrachloride
Chlorinated Solvents Carbon tetrachloride 56-23-5 Tetrachloromethane
Chlorinated Solvents Propylene dichloride 78-87-5 1-2-Dichloropropane
Halogenated Solvents Carbon tetrabromide 558-13-4 Carbon bromide, Methane tetrabromide, Tetrabromomethane;
Halogenated Solvents Acetylene tetrabromide 79-27-6 Symmetrical tetrabromoethane; TBE; Tetrabromoacetylene; Tetrabromoethane; 1,1,2,2-Tetrabromoethane;
Halogenated Solvents Ethylene dibromide 106-93-4 1,2-Dibromoethane; Ethylene bromide; Glycol dibromide;
Halowaxes Hexachloronaphthalene 1335-87-1 Halowax 1014
Halowaxes Octachloronaphthalene 2234-13-1 Halowax 1051
Halowaxes Pentachloronaphthalene 1321-64-8 Halowax 1013; 1,2,3,4,5-Pentachloronaphthalene;
Halowaxes Tetrachloronaphthalene 1335-88-2 Halowax, Nibren wax, Seekay wax;
Halowaxes Trichloronaphthalene 1321-65-9 Halowax, Nibren wax, Seekay wax;
Nitrosamines N-Nitrosodimethylamine 62-75-9 Dimethylnitrosamine; DMNA; NDMA; N,N-Dimethylnitrosamine;
Other Solvents Dimethylformamide 68-12-2 Dimethyl formamide; N,N-Dimethylformamide; DMF;
Other Solvents Tetrahydrofuran 109-99-9 Diethylene oxide; 1,4-Epoxybutane; Tetramethylene oxide; THF;
Other Solvents Dimethyl acetamide 127-19-5 DMAC; Acetic acid, dimethylamide; Dimethyl Acetamide; acetdimethylamide; dimethylacetone amide; dimethylamide acetate;
Other Organics Diphenyl 92-52-4 Biphenyl, Phenyl benzene

Chemicals Associated with Abnormal Liver Function Tests (LFTs)

The next list of 156 industrial chemicals (Tables AB, & C) could potentially cause hepatic injury in the occupational setting as a secondary toxic effect. Evidence of hepatic injury, such as elevated liver enzymes, has been reported for many of these chemicals after unprotected occupational exposure. For hazardous chemicals with long biological half-lives such as the heavy metals, PCBs and organochlorine insecticides, hepatic damage may not occur until a level of body burden is reached after chronic exposure.

Other chemicals are listed because they have caused liver injury in animal toxicology studies or in humans after ingestion. Conceivably, these chemicals could also cause liver damage through inhalation or skin absorption in the work environment. The main references used to compose both lists are two toxicology databases on compact disc: HSDB and TLVs and other Occupational Exposure Values.

While investigating some cases of chemical exposure, the physician may find useful Tables A, B & C. The secondary effect of liver toxicity, as indicated by elevated liver enzyme levels, could serve as a marker of significant exposure to that chemical.

Because of the routine use of liver function tests in medical surveillance programs, the occupational medicine physician frequently faces the problem of evaluating the possible work-relatedness of elevated values. Included are some abstracts in PubMed that may be helpful when dealing with this problem.

Revised May 30, 2018