The following web pages pertaining to "Industrial Chemicals Associated with Toxic Hepatitis" do not reflect the revision of hepatotoxins in the current version of Haz-Map. Please see the NLM website for updated information, including new references and additional hepatotoxic chemicals.
The chemicals in this list are known to cause illness or death due to acute hepatic injury after occupational exposure. An example is a worker who becomes ill with toxic hepatitis after using one of the solvents in a confined space without respiratory protection. Workers who improperly handle any one of these 20 chemicals could suffer liver damage as the principal toxic effect of the substance.
|Category||Chemical Name||CAS #||Other Chemical Names|
|Aliphatic Nitros||2-Nitropropane||79-46-9||Dimethylnitromethane, iso-Nitropropane, 2-NP|
|Aromatic Amines||4,4'-Methylenedianiline||101-77-9||MDA; 4,4'-Diaminodiphenylmethane; para, para'-Diaminodiphenyl-methane; Dianilinomethane; 4,4'-Diphenylmethanediamine; 4,4' Methylene bis (2-chloraniline); diaminodiphenylmethane; DDM;|
|Aromatic Nitros||2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene||118-96-7||1-Methyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene; TNT; Trinitrotoluene; sym-Trinitrotoluene; Trinitrotoluol|
|Chlorinated Solvents||Ethylene dichloride||107-06-2||1,2-Dichloroethane; Ethylene chloride; Glycol dichloride|
|Chlorinated Solvents||1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane||79-34-5||Acetylene tetrachloride|
|Chlorinated Solvents||Carbon tetrachloride||56-23-5||Tetrachloromethane|
|Chlorinated Solvents||Propylene dichloride||78-87-5||1-2-Dichloropropane|
|Halogenated Solvents||Carbon tetrabromide||558-13-4||Carbon bromide, Methane tetrabromide, Tetrabromomethane;|
|Halogenated Solvents||Acetylene tetrabromide||79-27-6||Symmetrical tetrabromoethane; TBE; Tetrabromoacetylene; Tetrabromoethane; 1,1,2,2-Tetrabromoethane;|
|Halogenated Solvents||Ethylene dibromide||106-93-4||1,2-Dibromoethane; Ethylene bromide; Glycol dibromide;|
|Halowaxes||Pentachloronaphthalene||1321-64-8||Halowax 1013; 1,2,3,4,5-Pentachloronaphthalene;|
|Halowaxes||Tetrachloronaphthalene||1335-88-2||Halowax, Nibren wax, Seekay wax;|
|Halowaxes||Trichloronaphthalene||1321-65-9||Halowax, Nibren wax, Seekay wax;|
|Nitrosamines||N-Nitrosodimethylamine||62-75-9||Dimethylnitrosamine; DMNA; NDMA; N,N-Dimethylnitrosamine;|
|Other Solvents||Dimethylformamide||68-12-2||Dimethyl formamide; N,N-Dimethylformamide; DMF;|
|Other Solvents||Tetrahydrofuran||109-99-9||Diethylene oxide; 1,4-Epoxybutane; Tetramethylene oxide; THF;|
|Other Solvents||Dimethyl acetamide||127-19-5||DMAC; Acetic acid, dimethylamide; Dimethyl Acetamide; acetdimethylamide; dimethylacetone amide; dimethylamide acetate;|
|Other Organics||Diphenyl||92-52-4||Biphenyl, Phenyl benzene|
The next list of 156 industrial chemicals (Tables A, B, & C) could potentially cause hepatic injury in the occupational setting as a secondary toxic effect. Evidence of hepatic injury, such as elevated liver enzymes, has been reported for many of these chemicals after unprotected occupational exposure. For hazardous chemicals with long biological half-lives such as the heavy metals, PCBs and organochlorine insecticides, hepatic damage may not occur until a level of body burden is reached after chronic exposure.
Other chemicals are listed because they have caused liver injury in animal toxicology studies or in humans after ingestion. Conceivably, these chemicals could also cause liver damage through inhalation or skin absorption in the work environment. The main references used to compose both lists are two toxicology databases on compact disc: HSDB and TLVs and other Occupational Exposure Values.
While investigating some cases of chemical exposure, the physician may find useful Tables A, B & C. The secondary effect of liver toxicity, as indicated by elevated liver enzyme levels, could serve as a marker of significant exposure to that chemical.
Because of the routine use of liver function tests in medical surveillance programs, the occupational medicine physician frequently faces the problem of evaluating the possible work-relatedness of elevated values. Included are some abstracts in PubMed that may be helpful when dealing with this problem.
Revised May 30, 2018