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CLASSES; Monochlorophenols (MCPs); Dichlorophenols (DCPs); Trichlorophenols (T3CPs); Tetrachlorophenols (T4CPs); Pentachlorophenol (PCP);
All solid at room temperature except for 2-chlorophenol; [Ullmann] The sodium and potassium salts of chlorophenols are up to 4 orders of magnitude more soluble in water; [Reference #1]
Used as antimicrobials (biocides, fungicides, insecticides, ovicides, algicides) and herbicides; Used as preservatives for wood, glue, paint, vegetable fibers, leather, and furs; Also used to make pharmaceuticals and dyes; [Ullmann] Used in pressure-treatment of wood and in surface treatment of logs, railroad ties, telephone poles, and lumber; Lower chlorophenols were used to make pesticides such as 2,4,5-T; Released into the environment from chlorine bleaching in pulp and paper manufacturing, water treatment, and municipal waste incineration; [Reference #1]
May be contaminated with dioxins and furans; Higher chlorinated compounds, e.g., tri-, tetra-, and pentachlorophenols are less likely to cause seizures and more likely to cause hyperthermia (uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation); Lower chlorinated compounds, e.g., dichlorophenols, less likely to cause hyperthermia and more likely to cause seizures; Lower chlorinated phenols (all except pentachlorophenol) cause chemical burns on prolonged contact; Skin exposure can be lethal, e.g., 2,4-dichlorophenol to just 10% of body surface area; Other toxic effects in poisoning causes include metabolic acidosis and injury to the liver and kidneys; [HSDB] High doses may cause convulsions and injury to the liver and kidneys; Tetra- and pentachlorophenols can cause uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation; [Ullmann] Pentachlorophenol does not appear to be a primary neurotoxin; [Sullivan, p. 1257] Pentachlorophenol is 40 times more toxic as an uncoupler than 2,4-dichlorophenol; Commercial mono- and dichlorophenols contain little or no detectable dioxins or furans; What we know of human effects are based primarily on studies of workers in chemical manufacturing (dichlorophenols and trichlorophenols) and wood-preservation applicators (trichlorophenols, tetrachlorophenols, and pentachlorophenol); MCPs, DCPs, and 2,4,6-T3CP are convulsive agents; The other T3CPs and T4CPs are not; All of the chlorophenols are irritating or corrosive to the skin; The dioxins and furans that contaminate tri-, tetra-, and pentachlorophenol are probably the causal agents of chloracne; [Reference #1] "Combined exposures to polychlorophenols or to their sodium salts are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). [IARC]
Biomedical References

Adverse Effects

Other CNS neurotoxin
Hepatoxic (a) from occupational exposure (secondary effect) or (b) in animal studies or in humans after ingestion
Other Poison

Diseases, Processes, and Activities Linked to This Agent


Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent: