Agent Name
CAS Number
Major Category
Antimony metal; Antimony powder; Stibium; [NIOSH] Antimony and compounds, as Sb; [ACGIH] UN2871
Metalloid Compounds (Antimony)
Silver-white, lustrous, hard, brittle solid; scale-like crystals; or a dark-gray, lustrous powder; [NIOSH]
Antimony exposure can occur in smelting and refining operations and in alloy production. Antimony is used in glass, paints, ceramics, pigments, lead solders, and lead storage batteries. It is also used as a catalyst in the rubber and electronics industries. [Harber, p. 470] Antimony trioxide is used as a pigment for paints and a fireproofing agent for fabrics, plastics, and paper; [CAMEO] Pentavalent antimony used to treat leishmaniasis; Main use is alloy in lead storage batteries (hardener); [Nordberg, p. 567] Antimony trioxide and antimony trichloride are used as dopants in semiconductor manufacturing. CSH, p. 50]
Pneumoconiosis and pustular dermatitis have been associated with chronic exposure to antimony dust. [LaDou, p. 479-80] Miners and millers of antimony ores may develop silicosis and mixed-dust pneumoconiosis. Workers in smelters exposed to antimony oxide may develop a simple pneumoconiosis. [Rosenstock, p. 409] A study published in 1954 of abrasive workers exposed to Sb2S3 at levels usually exceeding 3 mg/m3 found that 6 of 125 workers died of sudden cardiac deaths, and EKG changes, mostly of T waves, were found in 37 of 75 workers examined. [ACGIH] Antimony trioxide caused allergic contact dermatitis in two ceramics workers. [Kanerva, p. 1753] Antimony is a "hepatotoxic agent." [Zimmerman, p. 4] There is evidence from pharmacologic use that antimony is nephrotoxic. [Rosenstock, p. 572] "Substances that have been shown to induce genetic damage in germ cells of humans or animals, or which produce mutagenic effects in somatic cells and have been shown to reach the germ cells in their active forms." [MAK] Urine testing is the most reliable method of assessing the level of antimony in the body. Hair testing is not reliable. [PMID 20042882] See "Stibine." See "Antimony trioxide production."
Biomedical References

Exposure Assessment

Biological monitoring of urine antimony in workers may be useful. In one study, 24 hour urine concentrations were < 1 ug/L in persons not occupationally exposed. [Nordberg, p. 359]
Skin Designation (ACGIH)
Insufficient data
0.5 mg/m3, as Sb
0.5 mg/m3, as Sb
50 mg/m3, as Sb
Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs
The revised IDLH for antimony compounds is 50 mg Sb/m3 based on acute inhalation toxicity data in animals [Izmerov et al. 1982] and an analogy to hydrogen chloride [ACGIH 1993] which has a revised IDLH of 50 ppm (75 mg/m3).
Lethal Concentration
LC50 (rat) = 720 mg/m3/2 hr
Explanatory Notes
Melting point = 630 deg C;
Half Life
Whole body: 76 hours; The pentavalent form is removed faster than trivalent form. [TDR, p. 109]
Reference Link #2

Adverse Effects

Hepatoxic (a) from occupational exposure (secondary effect) or (b) in animal studies or in humans after ingestion

Diseases, Processes, and Activities Linked to This Agent


Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:


Activities with risk of exposure: